u̯(e)id-2

u̯(e)id-2
    u̯(e)id-2
    English meaning: to see; to know
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “erblicken, sehen”
    Grammatical information: (originally Aorist), Zustandsverbum u̯(e)idē(i)-, nasalized u̯i-n-d-, perf. u̯oid-а- “have seen, white”, whence die meaning “ know, have knowledge of “ also auf other forms ũbertragen wurde; from the meaning “ behold “ derives “find”
    Material: A. O.Ind. vetti, vidmási vidánti “ know, have knowledge of “ (present reshuffling of perf. vḗ da vidmá), vēdate (also), vidáti (also) “ know, have knowledge of “, perf. véda vidmá, Opt. vidyüt, participle vidvün; Av. vaēδa vīdarǝ, Opt. vīdyüt̃ , vīdvü̊ “ know, have knowledge of “ (die meaning ‘see” in aiwi. vīsǝm “have wahrgenommen”, paiti. vīsǝm “wurde gewahr”, fravōizdūm “nehmt wahr”); to-participle O.Ind. vitta- “ recognized, bekannt”, Av. vista- “bekannt as” and O.Ind. viditá- (probably zur basis *u̯idēi-); Inf. O.Ind. vidmáne (= Gk. ἴδμεναι) “ know, have knowledge of “, gthAv. vīdvanōi; Kaus. O.Ind. vedayati “läßt know, have knowledge of, kũndigt an, bietet an”, Av. uzvaēδayeiti “läßt know, have knowledge of “; In the meaning “find”: O.Ind. vindáti (vétti, vitté), ávidat, vivéda, vévidat, vittá-, Kaus. vēdayati, Av. vī̆ δaiti, vī̆ nasti, vīvaēδa, vōivīdaiti (Konj.), Kaus. vaēδayeiti “läßt erlangen, makes teilhaftig”, participle vista- “(vor)gefunden, vorhanden”; die separation from den forms the meaning ‘see, know, have knowledge of “ is not quite sharp durchzufũhren, compare O.Ind. vindáti “white”, sBal. gindag ‘see”; Arm. egit “er fand” (= O.Ind. ávidat, Gk. ἔFιδε), gtanem “find”; from dem perf. *u̯oida reshaped gitem “I know” (i from oi; in addition gēt, gitak, gitun “wissend, wise”); results of nasal present (= O.Ind. vindati, Ir. finn-, see below) perhaps in Arm. gint “profit, gain”, if from *u̯ind-; Gk. εἴδομαι “erscheine, scheine, gebe mir den Anschein”; οἶδα “white”, ἴδμεν, Konj. εἴδω, participle εἰδώς (*Fειδ-), ἰδυῖα; Aor. εἶδον (ἔFιδον) ‘sah”, ἰδεῖν (: O.Ind. ávidat, Arm. egit), participle ἄ-ιστος, ἰστέον; Gk. ᾽Αΐδης, Att. ῝Ᾱιδης probably ἀ-Fιδ- “unsichtbar, not anzusehen” s. lastly Frisk 33 f.; nasalized ἰνδάλλομαι “erscheine, zeige mich; gleiche”; also Celt. vindo- “white” (O.Ir. find, Welsh gwynn, Gaul. PN Vindomagus, -bona); Lat. videō, -ēre ‘see” (from the basis *u̯(e)idē-, compare O.C.S. viděti, Lith. pavyde ́ti, Goth.witan, -aida “observe” etc., and with zero grade *u̯(e)idī̆ - the 2. syllable O.C.S. present viditъ, Lith. pavūdime, Lat. vīdi-s-tī, O.Ind. Aor. avēdīt, vēdi-tár-, vḗ di-tum, vidi-tá-; Umbr. uirseto “visa” or “visum”, auirseto “unsichtbar”: Lat. vidēre = tacitus : tacēre), perf. vīdī (= O.C.S. veď e)̌ , participle vīsus (as vīsus, -us “das Sehen, sight” with ī for ĭ after vīdī and vīso); Lat. vīsō, -ere “besuchen” (i.e. “to sehen wish”), Umbr. revestu “revisito” (*u̯eid-s-ō); similarly Goth. gaweisōn , O.S. O.H.G. wīsōn “besuchen”; O.Ir. ad-fīadat ‘sie erzählen” (etc.); compounds unseres Verbs are do-adbat “er shows”, do-adbadar “wird gezeigt”, as-ind-et “expounded”; nasal present (see above O.Ind. vindáti) nad-finnatar ‘sie wissen nicht”, rofinnadar “pflegt to wissen” (*u̯i-n-d-nǝ-), as-fēnimm, doaisbēna “points, shows, evinces, shows” (from *u̯id-nǝ-) M.Welsh 1. sg. gwnn, Corn. gon, M.Bret. goun “I know” (die weiteren Brit. Präsensformen, e.g. 2. sg. M.Welsh gwydost, gwdost, 1. pl. Welsh gwyddom, are against it of perf. derive ); perf. O.Ir. rofetar “I know”, rofitir “er white” = Welsh gwyr (*u̯id-rai); O.Ir. rofess ‘scitum est” (*u̯id-to-m, compare also fiss, Welsh gwys “das Wissen” from *u̯id-tu-s), fess ‘scita” (pl. neutr.), M.Welsh gwyss, M.Bret. gous “wurde gewußt”; O.Ir. toīsech, Welsh tywysog “guide, leader” (*to-u̯issükos, Ogam gen. TOVISACI), O.Ir. tūus “Anfang”, Welsh tywys “guide, lead” (*to-u̯issus, IE *-u̯idtus); here probably also O.Ir. fōid- ‘send”, e.g. 3. pl. fōidit (= O.Ind. vēdayati, O.Ice. veita ds); O.Ir. fīado “master, mister” (*u̯eidont-s); Goth. fraweitan “rächen” (“animadvertere”), O.H.G. firwīzzan “tadelnd vorwerfen, verweisen”, wīzzan “bemerken, look out auf”, O.S. O.E. wītan “reproach, rebuke, reproach” (therefrom O.Ice. vīti n. O.E.wīte, O.S. wīti, O.H.G. wīzzi n. “ punishment “), Goth. in-weitan “die worship, veneration prove”; with ostentatious meaning-development O.E. gewītan “fortgehen, die”, O.S. giwītan “go”, O.H.G. (Hildebrandlied) giweit “er walked “, (Tatian) arawīzan “discedere”; Goth. fairweitjan “gespannt hinblicken auf, perhaps zur basis auf -ē: - ī̆-, as certainly die ē-verbs Goth. witan, -aida “auf etwas sehen, observe”, O.Ice. only participle vitaðr “beobachtet, bestimmt”, O.E. (be)witian “betrachten, decide, define, ordain, determine”; preterit present Goth. wait, witum “know, wir know, have knowledge of “ (Inf. witan, participle witands neologism), O.Ice. veit vitum (vita, vissa) “ know, have knowledge of “, also “bemerken, erforschen, indicate, gerichtet sein after, look after, go after”, O.E. wüt, witon (witan, wisse wiste), O.H.G. weiz, wizzumēs (wizzan, wissa, wessa) “ know, have knowledge of “ substantiviertes participle Goth. weitwōÞs “Zeuge” (: εἰδώς, ἰδυῖα “Zeuge”);to-participle Goth. unwiss “ungewiß”, O.H.G. giwis(s), O.S. O.E. wiss “ certainly “ (O.Ice. vissa “Gewißheit”); Kaus. O.Ice. veita “grant, leisten, help; also Wasser in eine Richtung leiten”, O.H.G. weizen ‘show, beweisen”; to Fιδεῖν seems as Injunktiv O.E. wuton (with folgendem Inf.) from *witon “laßt uns” (older “laßt uns zusehen, tendamus”) to belong; Lith. véizdmi (for *veidmi after dem Imper. O.Lith. veizdi = *u̯eid-dhi, compare O.Ind. viddhí), veizde ́ti ‘see, hinblicken”, pavūdžiu, -vūdime -vyde ́ti “invidere” (see o); of old perf.from O.Pruss. waisei, waisse “du weißt” (= O.C.S. věsi) waidimai “wir know, have knowledge of “, Inf. waist; O.C.S.viždǫ , vidiši, videť i ‘see”, previous perf. Med. vědě (= Lat. vīdī “white”), present reshaped věmь, věděti “ know, have knowledge of “; pověděti “ know, have knowledge of lassen” (probably reshuffling eines Kaus. *u̯oidéi̯ō, sl. *věditi, after věděti “ know, have knowledge of “); izvěstъ “bekannt, certainly “. B. nominal formation: root nouns O.Ind. -vid- “kennend, expert, skillful” (e.g. aśvavid-), Av. vīd- “teilhaftig”; Gk. νῆ-ις, -ιδος “ignorant”; Goth. unwita, O.H.G. unwizzo “Unwissender”, O.H.G. forawizzo “praescius”, O.E. wita “weiser man, Ratgeber”, gewita “Zeuge”, O.H.G. wizzo “weiser man”, giwizzo “Zeuge” postverbal en-stem; aberO.Ir. fīadu “Zeuge” (*u̯eid-u̯ōt-s) secondary n-stem; O.Ind. vidǘ “Kenntnis”, Welsh etc. gwedd f. ‘sight, apparition”; O.Ind. vidyǘ “Wissen, doctrine”, Av. viδya ds.; O.Ir. airde n. “mark, token, sign” (*[p]ari-vidi̯om) = Welsh arwydd m. ds., O.S. giwitt, O.H.G. (gi)wizzi n. “Wissen, Verstand”, O.E. witt “Verstand, Besinnung”, Goth. unwiti n. “Unwissenheit, Unverstand”, compare also O.H.G. wizzī f. “Wissen, Verstand, Besinnung” in addition O.H.G.gi-, ir-wizzēn “look out” (Ger. Witz m.), M.L.G. witte f. ds.; es-stem: O.Ind. vḗ das n. “Kenntnis, Umsicht, heilige Schrift”, Gk. εἶδος n. “Aussehen, shape”, Lith. véidas “ front “ (to glottal stop see below), O.C.S. vidъ (Serb. vîd) ‘sight, Aussehen” (from ehemaligen Neutra), so probably also: M.Ir. fīad m. “Ehrenbezeigung”, O.Ir. fīad (*u̯eidos) with dat. “coram”, Welsh yngwydd ds., gwydd “Anwesenheit”, M.Bret. a goez, Bret. ac”houez “öffenlich” (“angesichts”); Welsh ad-wydd “cruel, savage”, gwaradwydd “insult”; other formations in Goth. unweis “ignorant, ungebildet”, fullaweis “vollkommen weise”, O.Ice. vīss, O.H.G. O.S. O.E. wīs “wise” (*u̯eid-s-o-), O.H.G. wīs(a) “(*Aussehen =) kind of, Weise”, O.E. wīs(e) “Weise, state, status, direction”, O.Ice. ǫðruvīs “different”, perhaps also ἰδέα “outer apparition, shape, sight” (if *Fιδέσᾱ); Gk. ἴδρις, -ιος “wissend, expert, skillful “, O.Ice. vitr ‘sensible, wise”; Gk. (Hom.) εἰδάλιμος “beautiful from Gestalt”, εἰδάλλεται φαίνεται Hes., due to eines *εἴδαλο- wherefore with Suffixablaut εἰδωλον ‘shape”, ἀείδελος “unsichtbar”; Lith. vaidalas “apparition”, pavìdalas ‘shape” (*-elo-); Gk. εἰδυλίς, -ίδος “εἰδυῖα, ἐπιστήμων”, O.Ind. vidura- ‘smart, sensible, wise”, Lith. pavìdulis “Ebenbild”, akiẽs pavydulis , O.Pruss. weydulis “ eyeball”, Goth. faírweitl ‘schauspiel”; O.Ind. vidmán- m. “Weisheit” (compare also Inf. vidmanē, ἴδμεναι), Gk. ἴδμων, -ονος “expert, skillful”; ἰδμήν φρόνησιν Hes.; Gk. ἴστωρ, Att. ἵστωρ, böot. Fίστωρ “wissend, expert, skillful; Schiedsrichter”, ἱστορεῖν “erkunden”, ἱστορία “Geschichte”; in Balt gives es eine Reihe from words with dem ablaut ēi: ī: Lith. véidas (compared with Serb. vîd from *u̯ĕidos), véizdmi, vyzdỹs “ eyeball”, išvý sti “gewahr become”, pavyde ́ti “beneiden”, pavỹdas “ envy “, O.Pruss. aina-wīdai adv. “gleich”; the originator seems das lengthened gradee present *u̯ēid-mi. perhaps here O.C.S. věžda, aRuss. věža “eyelid” (Proto-Slav.. vědi̯a, Vasmer 1, 178) and Church Slavic nevežda “Ungebildeter”, aRuss. věža “Wissender”.
    References: WP. I 236 ff., WH. II 784 f., Trautmann 338, 357 f., Vasmer 1, 176 ff., 192, Frisk 33 f., 451 f., M. Leumann Celtica 3, 241 ff.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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